Small Weather Station Operating Principles and Hardware Block Diagram

The small meteorological station used for atmospheric parameter measurement is widely used in meteorological services, atmospheric experiments, communications, and agriculture. The measured atmospheric parameters mainly include wind speed, wind direction, atmospheric humidity, atmospheric temperature, and atmospheric pressure. Due to the characteristics of the atmospheric parameters, the small meteorological stations have higher requirements in terms of portability, real-time measurement, power consumption, and anti-interference ability. Prior to the advent of digital signal processors (DSPs), small meteorological stations were mainly based on MCS-51 single-chip data acquisition and processing systems. In the face of large amounts of meteorological data, the lack of rapid processing capability of single-chip microcomputers was exposed. Out, and DSP because of its own hardware structure allows it to quickly perform data processing, to make up for the deficiencies of the microcontroller. The small-scale meteorological station based on DSP is a new design that combines the working principle of DSP, measurement method of atmospheric parameters and the characteristics of small-scale meteorological station. It can carry out real-time measurement of atmospheric parameters and has low power consumption and is portable. Good performance and strong anti-interference ability.
The working principle and hardware block diagram of the small weather station The weather station for atmospheric parameter measurement is mainly composed of sensors, signal conditioning circuits, DSP system and power supply module, as shown in Fig.1. Since the measured atmospheric parameters are all non-electrical quantities, and the measurement results are based on the processing of the electrical signals, a corresponding sensor is used in each of the atmospheric parameters in the weather station to convert non-electrical energy into electricity. The output of the sensor is different because of its working principle. This paper designs different signal conditioning circuits according to the actual selected sensor, and carries out targeted filtering of the sensor output, I/V conversion, pulse stabilization and voltage amplification and other different forms. The conditioning allows the output of the sensor to meet the input analog voltage range of the A/D converter on the DSP chip or the level requirement of the I/O port after the signal conditioning circuit. DSP system consists of DSP chip, DSP peripheral reset circuit, oscillator circuit, reset circuit and serial communication port. The DSP system mainly performs analog input channel selection, A/D conversion, signal processing, control of other components of the weather station, and serial communication with the host computer. The power module provides a stable DC voltage for the DSP system and other components of the weather station.

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Small Weather Station Schematic

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